Home arrow The EcoJustice Review arrow Articles arrow PAUL THEOBALD and HIBAJENE SHANDOMO, Education and the Proliferation of New (Old) Concepts
PAUL THEOBALD and HIBAJENE SHANDOMO, Education and the Proliferation of New (Old) Concepts

 

Education and the Proliferation of New (Old) Concepts: Agrarianism, the Commons, No-Growth Economics, and the Maximum Wage

PAUL THEOBALD
Buffalo State College

HIBAJENE SHANDOMO
Buffalo State College

 

Any observer with a keen interest in the state of American public education is probably aware of the fact that several layers beneath the noise surrounding No Child Left Behind, somewhere below the headline stories in Education Week, there is a growing interest in the idea that our educational system ought to begin to serve different ends.  For about a century now, the educational project in this country has been about outfitting youth for their eventual economic role as adults, an endeavor enthusiastically undertaken in this country with typically high levels of hubris.  But in 1983 the nation’s school system was chastised severely by a presidential commission that condemned the mediocre job schools were doing relative to this task.  In fact, the authors of A Nation at Risk argued that “If only to keep and improve on the slim edge we still retain in the world markets we must dedicate ourselves to the reform of our educational system”(National Commission on Excellence in Education 1983,  7).  Though they didn’t bother with an attempt to substantiate the claim that there is a causal connection between good schools and a good economy, they nevertheless hammered this message, with the help of a compliant corporate-controlled media, into the consciousness of the American public.  The rhetoric making schools out to be a primary source of global economic dominion hasn’t yet subsided.  It is the fuel that drives all of the noise surrounding schooling in the United States today.

For those willing to listen carefully, however, one might also hear a resurgence of concepts advanced many decades ago, things like project-based learning, social reconstructionism, community-based curriculum and much more.  We will argue that these curricular and instructional approaches will become increasingly popular, increasingly viable alternatives to the educational status quo, as Americans begin to look seriously for solutions to our precarious ecological circumstances.  We will argue that a relatively short list of old ideas—agrarianism, the commons, no-growth economics, and the maximum wage—are experiencing a resurgence today precisely because Americans are looking for alternatives to a status quo that is demonstrably dangerous to life on the planet.  Further, we will demonstrate that the success or failure of these ideas rested from the start on educational effort, and that this is no less true today.  But by educational effort we mean an education aimed at improving human life, not preparation for jobs.  We believe, therefore, that as this small collection of ideas becomes increasingly popular, substantive approaches to curriculum and instruction will as well.An Accounting of New (Old) ConceptsAgrarianism is a concept that has enjoyed a significant resurgence.  Twenty years ago it would have been difficult to find a single scholarly use of the term, even in economic literature, let alone in political or educational theory.  But today one can easily find many recent books with agrarianism in the title, and there are more currently in the publication process (Freyfogle 2001, Montmarquet 1989, Wirzba 2003).  At its most basic, agrarianism is a kind of counterpart to industrialism, though considerably more is meant by this than differentiating between farms and factories.  Agrarianism represents a particular approach to life, an approach governed by certain deeply held values.  The same is of course true for industrialism.  The difference has to do with the values associated with the two traditions and what those values have meant in political, economic, and educational arenas.

For the past century America’s cultural embrace of industrial values: ever-increasing production, ever-increasing levels of efficiency, and ever-increasing levels of consumption, have been so dominant that the American public scarcely retains any cultural memory of the values that defined an agrarian worldview, values such as frugality, good neighborship, the avoidance of risk, and the psychological profit in work done well.  As a consequence, the considerable, though disparate, educational movements well below the current radar, such as project-based learning or place-based learning, are operating to some degree in the dark, unaware of the extent to which these efforts resonate with the worldview captured by the term agrarianism.

Regrettably, both terms, industrialism and agrarianism, have been largely relegated to the realm of economics—or how people will make their living—though such an interpretation dramatically undersells the degree to which these traditions speak to the worlds of politics and education.  The commercialist-oriented industrial worldview was the genesis of liberal political theory of the Hobbes-Locke variety, while the agrarian worldview was the source of a much older civic republican theory with roots deeply grounded in the classical world, but also one advanced eloquently by what we might consider today to be second-string enlightenment philosophers—for example, Harrington in England, and Montesquieu in France.

These last figures are second-stringers, of course, because Locke’s Liberalism proved to be the ascendant philosophy, and especially because the primary architects of America’s constitution, James Madison and Alexander Hamilton, explicitly rejected the civic republicanism of Montesquieu in favor of the emerging industrial, Locke-inspired worldview that defined man as essentially an economic being.  The Freedom they touted for mankind was economic freedom, a more than adequate substitute, they believed, for the political freedom that was central to civic republicanism.

As the struggle between the older agrarian worldview and the emerging industrial worldview unfolded in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, the age-old Tradition of the commons became a kind of symbolic—and sometimes literal—battleground.  From the deep feudal past, neighborhood commons had been maintained as a resource that could be used by all of those who lived in a given neighborhood.  Further, all who used the commons had a right to a voice in the decisions that affected it—meaning that even the most destitute peasant had a political voice, and could be called upon to play a political role in the neighborhood as someone chosen, say, to responsibly monitor grazing levels and grass health.  The commons was uniquely public space—but as England and the rest of Europe began to ratchet up production in response to emerging industrial values, the drive to turn the commons into private space was intense.  Parliament was blistered by literally thousands of Enclosure bills, all designed to ease the ability of those with capital to acquire a neighborhood commons and turn it to industrial uses.  It was the drive to enclose the commons that lead to the violent reaction of large landowners near St. George’s Hill, just outside of London, to the simple efforts of Gerrard Winstanley and his followers, known as the Diggers.

In the spring of 1649, with the Civil War over, but with no work and few hopes, Winstanely led a group of some fifty people to a little used commons where they built ramshackle housing and began to dig up the land to plant crops from which they hoped to live.  Winstanley went on to publish a little-known treatise called The Law of Freedom in which he delineated the manner in which England might become an agrarian-based republic—complete with a life-long system of public education.  But local landowners were incensed by what the Diggers were doing and they harassed them with trumped-up charges, and by hiring thugs to beat them and to burn their shanty dwellings.  And of course the demise of the diggers was followed by massive enclosures—removing the commons from neighborhoods throughout England—creating poverty and starvation of the sort the country had scarcely ever known.  It was the fuel for Oliver Goldsmith’s famous poem, “The Deserted Village,”
   

    Ill fares the land
    To hastening ill’s a prey
    Where wealth accumulates
    And men decay. (Dobson 1927, 112)

Scholars today have begun to recognize the crucial role played by the commons in the past, for it was not only a kind of economic mechanism, it was also a kind of stage on which all citizens could play a political role with their lives—for all who used the commons were entitled to a voice on how the commons would be kept.  Like agrarianism, it is now possible to hear talk of re-establishing a modern version of the commons—or public space where citizens might possess the wherewithal to play a political role with their lives, and engage in political deliberation unmediated by the control of mega-corporations.  Witness, Chet Bowers’ book, Revitalizing the Commons, or Brian Donahue’s Reclaiming the Commons (Bowers 2006, Donahue 2001, Theobald 1997).

One of the great contributions of the commons was that it was something shared by the community and therefore not something that could be exploited to one’s own advantage without drawing the attention and disapproval of one’s neighbors—Garrett Hardin’s deeply flawed essay, “The Tragedy of the Commons,” notwithstanding (Hardin 1968).  The commons, therefore, was something that had to be meticulously maintained if it was going to be a viable resource for all neighborhood families in perpetuity.  Achieving this kind of maintenance, maintaining fertility over centuries, required the achievement of balance—of animals to acres or of crop rotations—so as not to wear out the soil.  An agrarian worldview gradually came to prize a kind of steady economic state, recognizing that efforts at intensifying or growing production levels could jeopardize the well-being of the entire neighborhood.  This, of course, is precisely what happened with the intensification efforts facilitated by the process of enclosure.  Goldsmith titled his poem “The Deserted Village” for a reason.

But even as the age of industrialism came into its own the concept of a non-growth-oriented economy was deemed to be a viable, even desirable, possibility.  John Stuart Mill, one of the greatest economists of the nineteenth century and a prominent spokesperson for the promulgation of industrial values, argued that a time would come when mankind would have to maintain a kind of balance between population levels and levels of economic activity and consciously reject further growth.  Said Mill,

It must always have been seen, more or less distinctly, by political economists, that the increase of wealth is not boundless; that at the end of what they term the progressive state lies the stationary state, that all Progress in wealth is but a postponement of this, and that each step in advance is an approach to it (Mill 1988, 111).


Today, when environmental degradation has become the norm, when economic activity has demonstrably produced serious climactic changes, the concept of a no-growth economy has once again re-appeared on society’s radar screen.  Former World Bank economist Herman Daly has been a persuasive advocate of no-growth economics for the last two decades.  And he has at last attracted a significant following.  But the educational component to such a societal shift is huge and, consequently, it has increasingly become a part of discussions about what schools are ultimately for, and how they might therefore function.

Mill also laid a foundation for the final topic of this paper, for he insisted that the matter of distributing a nation’s wealth was the prerogative of society and not a matter governed by law-like strictures.  “I know not why it should be a matter of congratulation that persons who are already richer than anyone needs to be, should have doubled their means of consuming things which give little or no pleasure except as representative of wealth; or that numbers of individuals should pass over, every year, from the middle classes into a richer class, or from the class of the occupied rich to that of the unoccupied” (Mill 1988, 114).  In this regard, Mill echoed a long-held tenet of civic republican agrarian theory—extremes in wealth and poverty were to be avoided at all costs. 

The mechanism for achieving this was of course taxation, a policy option that could in effect establish a maximum wage.  Although the number of Americans who are aware that such a concept exists is small, and the number who actively support policy changes to create a maximum wage is still smaller, the movement is gaining momentum largely due to the pace at which America’s super-wealthy are distancing themselves from the vast majority of the population.  Americans have never adopted a maximum wage law, though we have come close from time to time.  During the 20 year period between 1935 and 1955 billionaires were completely eliminated and the number of millionaires in the country was dramatically reduced.  President Roosevelt, during his last term in office, openly lobbied for a law that would tax 100 percent of all income over $25,000 per year—a reform measure that never came to be. 

The post-World War II graduated income tax scales were nevertheless progressive enough to create a predominantly middle class society, albeit one that has been completely dismantled in the years since Ronald Reagan’s 1981 Economic Recovery Act was passed.  The lopsided nature of America’s economic distribution cannot go on indefinitely and as a consequence, there are those who have earnestly re-proposed the establishment of a maximum wage.  Once again, if such a concept has any chance of gaining ground, it will require changes in the ends pursued by our formal education system, as well as changes in the means selected to achieve those new ends.

The small fledgling educational movements well below the contemporary radar screen— community-based curriculum, place-based learning, project-based learning, critical pedagogy, and others—are all in a very fundamental way about utilizing the intellectual wherewithal bestowed by education in the service of both the economic and political dimensions to life.  That is to say that they are educational movements that take their rationale from something other than industrial values—values that revolve solely around the concept of life as a purely economic endeavor.  In fact, the values undergirding these movements are premised on values more closely aligned with an agrarian worldview.

Because the term agrarianism has so little currency at the start of the twenty-first century, we will next move to a brief account of how this tradition has co-existed with industrialism through the years and in the process create an argument for why agrarian values represent a needed reform trajectory across the full societal spectrum of politics, economics, and education.

Unfettered Industrialism and a World Red in Tooth and Claw

Probably the best way to chronicle the fate of agrarian values across the last couple of centuries is to take a look at two pivotal moments in history—two moments that in many ways marked the end of the feudal era.  The first was in England of the 1640s; the second in the United States of the 1780s.

With the interlocked power of the church and state at least temporarily broken—symbolized by the executions of Archbishop Laud and King Charles—Oliver Cromwell and England itself had a choice to make.  And there was no shortage of options to consider. James Harrington and Gerrard Winstanley both wrote treatises describing the kind of agrarian republic England might become and dedicated them to Oliver Cromwell.  But Thomas Hobbes did as well, only Hobbes’ Leviathan was a blueprint for a commercialist-oriented republic that, contrary to the civic republicanism of Harrington and Winstanley, minimized any political role for citizens.  It was the Hobbesian vision that England came to embrace, though it was one made considerably more palatable by Locke’s work a few decades later.

In the United States of the 1780s, angered by the raucous farmers led by Daniel Shays in western Massachusetts, the leading commercialist advocates of the new nation called for a constitutional convention to amend the civic republicanism of the Articles of Confederation and create a nation oriented toward commercialist ventures.  Alexander Hamilton and Thomas Jefferson serve as symbols for the options available to the fledgling republic: Hamilton, the consummate liberal, and Jefferson, the consummate civic republican; one an advocate of industrialism and the use of child labor “at a tender age”(Cooke 1964, 131), the other an advocate of agrarianism and a system of free public education for all (white) youth.

Just as in England, the liberal industrial vision prevailed.  And in a matter of a few short decades, the world witnessed what Alfred Lord Tennyson described as societies “red in tooth and claw.”  We will not go into detail here on the extent of sheer and utter misery created by the unfettered industrialism of nineteenth century England and the United States, nor the even greater misery created by the rape of what is now called the “third world” as the globe was colonized to provide fuel for industrial engines.  Anyone who has read Charles Dickens has a feel for what a society red in tooth and claw looks like.

At the risk of oversimplifying things, we will argue that there were two nineteenth century responses to the horrible conditions created by unfettered industrialism.  One came from the pen of John Stuart Mill, the other from Karl Marx.  But we will further argue that there was a third option—an agrarian option sometimes called the “middle way,” between Mill and Marx.  As noted earlier, Mill demonstrated to the world that the wealth generated through industrial production could be distributed in ways that would alleviate the dire social conditions that defined England during the nineteenth century.  He called for gradual reforms that would temper the violent nature of industrial production and thus preserve the status quo.

Marx, on the other hand, believed that Mill’s course was impossible, and that society was on an industrial train that would necessarily and inevitably end in a worker revolution, at which point the excesses of industrialism would finally be controlled.  All of the differences between Mill and Marx have tended to blind twentieth century scholars to one ominous similarity: they both steadfastly embraced the values of industrialism.  Where was Winstanley, Harrington, Jefferson and the entire agrarian tradition when Mill and Marx were writing?  It was there as a third option, but since it was a road not taken, so to speak, historians have mostly ignored it.

As it turns out, the third option, the alternative to Mill and Marx that emerged in the nineteenth century, was a vision to some degree reminiscent of Winstanley’s seventeenth century depiction of a community-based republic premised on a lifelong commitment to citizen education.  It became manifest in the proliferation of community-building experiments in Europe and in the United States—experiments subsequently labeled “utopian,” a word that has come to be defined as synonymous with naïve, or with such phrases as “hopelessly romantic” or “overly sentimental.”  But the word was first used by Thomas More whose book (published in 1551), Utopia, helped clear a path for later critiques of the feudal order.  More pointed out that the word utopia might refer to the Greek “outopia,” meaning no place—a definition that squares well with our current one, but he also maintained that it might refer to “eutopia,” meaning the good place.  Today, any vision of what a society might become that does not look very much like what society currently is, is quickly dubbed “utopian,” and therefore impossible to achieve.  But whether these communitarian experiments were naïvely “utopian” using our current definition of the word is probably not as significant as the facts that document their incredible proliferation.  Whether they were Fourierist or Owenite, heavily religious or strikingly secular, built around agriculture or industry, there were profound similarities among them all.  In the United States we are most familiar with Hopedale, Northampton, New Harmony, Fruitlands, and Brook Farm, but between 1800 and 1859 there were at least 119 communal societies established; and between 1840 and 1849, the high point of the civic republican tradition in America, there were at least fifty-nine such communities established (Okugawa 1980).

The proliferation of these communities was partially a reaction to the excesses of the emerging industrial era, but it was also partly a reaction to the growing democratic spirit born of the liberal embrace of freedom.  Surely freedom had to mean more than a permission slip to slug it out with others in a competitive economic market?  Perhaps Montesquieu was right after all.  Maybe human freedom was meant to be applied to the political scene as well, and what better way to infuse a political dimension into the lives of citizens then via community involvement?  And just as Montesquieu warned that a democratic republic required a system of schools capable of delivering “the full power of education,” the communal societies of the 1840s made educational efforts a central thrust of their experiments, creating one significant similarity among them all.

A second similarity was the degree to which residents of these communitarian projects rejected the idea that “laws” took economic activity out of the realm of human volition—that there was some force at work which allowed market-driven behaviors to be considered quite apart from the realm of morality.  To the contrary, communitarians of the 1840s tried to establish moral economies, they tried to set moral parameters that would govern the exchange of goods and services within them.  The word that generally captured the idea of a moral economy was cooperation, and it should be no surprise that political theory built on the conception of a state of nature as a state of peace (Montesquieu), rather than a state of war (Locke), would be much more amenable to using cooperation as guideline for appropriate economic activity.

It turns out that we have to set aside both Mill and Marx to get a complete picture of the alternative that came into being, albeit piecemeal, during the nineteenth century—for it is within this alternative, we believe, that humankind’s greatest hope for a long future lies.  Christopher Clark aptly labeled the 1840s as “the communitarian moment,” a phrase that suggests certain circumstances came together in such a way as to permit a communitarian vision for what life might be to come to fruition.  But such a phrase also suggests that other circumstances came together in such a way as to snuff out that momentary vision.  To take what instruction we can from the potential of the communitarian moment we need to examine both sets of circumstances in turn.

In 1999 a sizable group of English protestors marched to St. George’s Hill in Surrey—now an affluent suburb of London—and symbolically began digging, planting, and building temporary shelter.  The effort was designed to commemorate the 350th anniversary of Gerrard Winstanley’s digger experiment, and it garnered some limited media attention.  The re-enactment symbolizes one incontestable fact related to Winstanley and the diggers: what they did was memorable.  At first, of course, it was a memory that haunted the landed aristocracy of England; but later it was a memory that served as a source of new possibilities in the world—the establishment of Puritan communities abroad, for instance, or for the establishment of secular communities of the sort that came into being in the nineteenth century.  Winstanley and his followers took advantage of that limited window of freedom in the 1640s, that small space of time when the feudal order fell and there was nothing there to immediately fill the void.  In that moment Winstanley and the diggers offered to the world the idea that the earth was a “common treasury” to be protected and used well by all.

There were prehistorical, classical, and medieval antecedents to this idea, to be sure, but the prehistorical conceptions had been irrevocably lost to seventeenth century Europe, and classical and medieval conceptions lacked the democratic ethos that pervaded England of the 1640s.  When the idea of the earth as a common treasury was paired with the idea that an individual ought to have a voice in the decisions that affect her/him, a modern community-oriented agrarian vision was born.  For this contribution to humankind, Gerrard Winstanley ought to be listed among the world’s great thinkers.  His work ought to be translated into many languages and studied by youth and adults alike the world over.  But his agrarian vision was passed over for a more chauvinistic, aggrandizing vision of an urban industrial future, and so Winstanley has remained a footnote in history.  But while his vision has been kept in the footnotes, kept at the margins of political, economic, and educational theory, it has never disappeared altogether.  For that there are others to thank.

An obscure late eighteenth century professor at King’s College in Aberdeen, Scotland, William Ogilivie, is one such individual.  Building on the idea of the earth as a common treasury, Ogilivie argued that “the earth having been given to mankind in common occupancy, each individual seems to have by nature a right to possess and cultivate an equal share.”  If a child is born with the expectation that it will receive mother’s milk, “no one can deny that it has the same right to mother-earth”(Ogilivie 1970, 7).   Ogilivie’s arguments were laid out anonymously in 1782 in an extended essay sometimes called “Birthright in Land,” but the power possessed by England’s landed aristocracy was enough to be sure that this idea that every child born on earth was entitled to a part of it would go nowhere.  Still, it has proved to be an idea that is difficult to dispute with intellectual argument.  If a child deserves food, clothing, and shelter--something no one would attempt to deny—at what point does the child no longer deserve these things?  Does this occur at age 12? 16? 18? 21?  And is there some obligation on the part of society to be sure that the means of procuring these things are available to all?  Given the vagaries of the market, a society is not in a position to guarantee income for all of those who need it.  Then what?  Ogilivie’s answer was that since each individual has a right “to the use of open air and running water,” they also have the right to obtain food, which for Ogilivie translated into a right to possess and cultivate a share of the earth.

Of course Ogilivie’s contemporaries were quick to point out that such a scheme was not practical, though he did his best to stave off this criticism.  “No impractical Utopian scheme can be said to be suggested, in proposing that property in land should be diffused to as great a number of citizens as may desire it: that is only proposing to carry out somewhat farther, and render more extensive, a plan which the experience of many ages has shown to be very practical, and highly beneficial in every public and private respect.”  This same objection—“It’s too impractical”—would be echoed a million times over if someone was able to get the same idea out to a wide audience today—something that has actually happened, as we shall shortly see.  For now it is enough to recognize that Ogilivie built on Winstanley’s idea of the earth as a common treasury and argued that this conception creates a legitimate entitlement to the possession of the earth for all individuals.  Ogilivie pointed out that primitive societies generally operate on the assumption undergirding a birthright in land but added that “whenever conquests have taken place, this right has been commonly subverted and effaced; in the progress of commercial arts and refinements, it is suffered to fall into obscurity and neglect” (Ogilivie 1970, 10).  In other words, as land became an avenue for the acquisition of wealth unencumbered by community obligations, the idea that all individuals have a right to the land has been gradually squeezed out of popular memory.

But the idea didn’t die with Ogilivie.  It was picked up and refined a few years later by an Englishman turned American citizen, none other than the great pamphleteer of the American colonies, Thomas Paine.  In an essay entitled “Agrarian Justice,” Paine echoed Ogilivie’s arguments and built on the distant memory of Gerrard Winstanley and the diggers.

Paine’s career as an agrarian spokesperson developed while he lived in France after the American Revolution.  But during the bloody reign of Robespierre, Paine was arrested and charged with being a “foreigner” and was subsequently imprisoned.  Gouvenour Morris, America’s ambassador to France, refused to acknowledge Paine as a converted and legitimate American citizen, and thus Paine lived for months with the daily threat of the guillotine.  When Morris was replaced by James Monroe, the new ambassador quickly lobbied for and achieved Paine’s release from prison.  Mrs. Monroe nurtured him back to health and Paine quickly returned to the business of writing pamphlets and essays dedicated to the improvement of mankind.  He wrote “Agrarian Justice” during the winter of 1795-96, though it wasn’t published until 1797.  It was written as a suggestion for the French republic, though in the author’s inscription he noted that “this work is not adapted for any country alone,” meaning that its prescriptions might well be used by the United States or even England.

Paine begins the essay by highlighting what Adam Smith went to considerable effort to hide, the fact that the ascendancy of modern “civilization” had created enormous extremes in the quality of life among men:

Whether that state that is proudly, perhaps erroneously, called civilization, has most promoted or most injured the general happiness of man, is a question that may be strongly contested.  On one side, the spectator is dazzled by splendid appearances; on the other, he is shocked by extremes of wretchedness; both of which it has erected.  The most affluent and the most miserable of the human race are to be found in the countries that are called civilized (Van der Weyde 1925, 9)

Recall that Smith legitimized English poverty by pointing to their possessions, the glass in their windows, the silverware on their tables, then compared these possessions to those owned by the poor in Africa, thereafter pronouncing England’s poor to be better off than African kings.  Malthus, Ricardo, and even John Stuart Mill berated the poor of England for their moral shortcomings, claiming definitively that they bring on their own circumstances by their inability to contain their “procreative impulses.”

Paine would have none of such nonsense.  Using the state of nature as a point of departure (as did Hobbes, Locke, Montesquieu, and many others), he noted that neither abject poverty nor incredible affluence existed there.  Should a society seek to achieve a natural state, therefore, they must fashion policy that eliminates these extremes.  Paine begins with a passage that sounds as if it came directly from Gerrard Winstanley’s The Law of Freedom or from Ogilivie’s Essay on the Right of Property in Land:

It is a position not to be controverted that the earth, in its natural, uncultivated state was, and ever would have continued to be, the common property of the human race.  In that state every man would have been born to property.  He would have been a joint life proprietor with the rest in the property of the soil, and in all of its natural productions, vegetable and animal (Van der Weyde 1925, 11).

For tens of thousands of years this arrangement was maintained.  In time, however, the use of the sword legitimated unlimited acquisition by some and the dispossession of others.  Agrarian justice required rectification of this circumstance and Paine was not satisfied with the objection so many gave to Ogilivie, that his plan was simply not practical.  Paine was more than willing to tackle the practicality problem.  Like Locke much earlier, Paine acknowledged that improved land is much more productive than unimproved land.  But unlike Locke, Paine argued that it was the value of improvements made that constituted individual property—while the land remained necessarily a common treasury.  This being the case, every proprietor of cultivated lands owes the community what Paine called a “ground-rent” in exchange for the use of the common treasury.

Paine was aware of the fact that, like the emerging small farms on the Greek peninsula circa 700 BC, the considerable labor involved in cultivation led to property claims where previously there were none.  Originally, the land had no owner.  The problem, for Paine, with property claims is that the act of establishing what belongs to one is simultaneously the act of denying possession to another.  The shortcoming of civilized societies has been their failure to provide an indemnification for those who lack access to the common treasury.  Righting this shortcoming was merely a policy question, and Paine went on to demonstrate how such a policy might look:

I shall now proceed to the plan I have to propose, which is, to create a national fund, out of which there shall be paid to every person, when arrived at the age of twenty-one years, the sum of fifteen pounds sterling, as compensation in part, for the loss of his or her natural inheritance, by the introduction of the system of landed property: and also, the sum of ten pounds per annum, during life, to every person now living, of the age of fifty years, and to all others as they shall arrive at that age (Van der Weyde 1925, 15).

He goes on to describe how society might support such a policy—relying most heavily on inheritances taxes, “because it will operate without deranging any present possessors . . . and because it will be the least troublesome and the most effectual, and also because the subtraction will be made at a time that best admits it.”  But as Paine points out, there are many ways to make the resources required by agrarian justice available.

Paine’s essay also ought to be required reading for youth and adults everywhere.  It is a clearly written, carefully and persuasively constructed argument for a policy intended to minimize the extent to which modern “civilized” society divides people into groups of wealthy and poor.  The plan had an impact on those who played a leadership role in establishing America’s communitarian moment in the 1840s, it would serve as a catalyst to Henry George’s “single tax” plan near the end of the nineteenth century, and it would serve as an indirect inspiration for a contemporary plan, offered by Yale philosophers Bruce Ackerman and Anne Alstott in The Stakeholder Society (1993), for the federal government to award a check for $80,000 to each high school or GED graduate.  The plan was quickly dismissed as impractical.

There were other agrarian thinkers who rejected the assumptions and the general philosophy that emanated from the mainstream voices in the field of political economy, that is, Smith, Malthus, Ricardo, Say, and Mill.  Ogilivie was one, Paine was another, but there were many more, some of whom were outside of the English speaking tradition, a fact that has contributed to some degree to their relative obscurity in the annals of economic theorizing.  But as with the thought of Winstanley, Ogilivie, and Paine, the ideas are there at the margins waiting for a re-discovery on the part of modern civilized society.

At the margins clearly describes the ideas offered by the French (though he lived most of his life in Switzerland) economist Leonard Sismonde de Sismondi, an economist who began his career as an apologist for the views of Adam Smith.  Sismondi was enamored with Smith’s ability to create a science out of the study of political economy.  But he didn’t immediately build his career as an economist.  His interests were broad.  In 1818, for example, he published the last of an 18 volume history of the constitutional republics of Italy.  He also published extensive works dealing with the literature of southern Europe, noting that its quality seemed to be related to the highs and lows of a nation’s economic prosperity.

In time Sismondi had a chance to visit England and, in fact, he lived there for about a year.  The visit crushed his admiration for Adam Smith.  As M. Mignet put it in 1845:

What had he seen there?  --all the grandeur, but also all of the abuse, of unlimited production, every progress of industry causing a revolution in the means of living; every closed market reducing whole populations to die of hunger; the irregularities of competition; the state naturally produced by contending interests, often more destructive than the ravages of war; he had seen man reduced to the spring of a machine more intelligent than himself, human beings heaped together in unhealthy places, where life does not attain half its length; where family ties are broken, where moral ideas are lost; he had seen the weakest infancy condemned to labours which brutalize its mind, and prematurely waste its strength; he had seen the country, as well as the towns, transformed into manufactories; small properties and trades disappearing before great factories; the peasant and the artisan become day-labourers, the day-labourers falling into the lowest and most indigent class, and thus becoming paupers; in a word, he had seen extreme wretchedness and frightful degradation mournfully counterbalance and secretly threaten the prosperity and the splendour of a great nation (Sismondi 1966, 15).

In short, he had witnessed a system legitimated, ostensibly, by the science of political economy, one that clearly sacrificed the happiness of humankind to the production of wealth.  It was a system he could not countenance.  In 1819 he published his greatest work, New Principles of Political Economy, a volume that was not translated into English until 1991.  As a consequence, it remained an obscure piece of work, a circumstance with onerous consequences, as history regrettably demonstrated.

Classical economic wisdom maintained that recessionary business cycles would right themselves because production created its own consumption (this came to be known as “Say’s Law,” as it was advanced first by the French economist Jean Baptiste Say).  More than this, it stated that these cycles had to right themselves, as if it were a law of nature similar to the law of thermodynamics.  Sismondi’s response?  “It is a grave mistake . . . to represent consumption as a force without limits always ready to absorb an infinite production” (Sismondi 1991, xxviii).  Grave, indeed.  As the United States and much of the world slipped deeper and deeper into depression after 1929, American advisors to President Hoover clung ever tighter to Say’s Law, waiting for it to exert its mysterious force.  It never did.

Sismondi dismissed economic analysis premised on the idea that human behaviors could be observed and later predicted with law-like certainty in much the same way that the physicist identifies a law of nature.  In so doing, he alienated himself from the classical tradition of Ricardo and Mill, but also from the radical tradition of Marx and Lenin.  Despite this, as we shall see, the world has profited from Sismondi’s ideas, and much suffering might have been alleviated by an earlier embrace of those ideas.

Sismondi was unabashedly an agrarian thinker—another reason why his work has been so readily dismissed.  There are obvious physiocratic overtones in his work, though he brought much more sophistication to his analysis than Quesnay and Mirabeau were able to muster at the mid-point of the eighteenth century.  Said Sismondi,

The riches proceeding from land should be the first to engage the attention of the economist or a legislator.  They are the most necessary of all, because it is from the ground that our subsistence is derived; because they furnish the materials for every other kind of labor; and lastly, because, in preparation, they constantly employ the half, often much more than half, of all the nation.  The class of people who cultivate the ground are particularly valuable for bodily qualities fitted to make excellent soldiers, and for mental qualities fitted to make good citizens (Sismondi 1991, 131).

Sismondi covers much the same ground as Paine in identifying the circumstances leading to property claims.  Like Paine, he sees this development as advantageous to society but notes that it also places a burden on society. 

He who, after having enclosed a field, uttered the first This is mine, has summoned him who possesses no field, and who could not live if the fields of the first would not bring forth a surplus product.  This is a fortunate usurpation, and society, for the benefit of all, does well to guarantee it.  However, it is a gift of society and in no way a natural right which preexisted (Sismondi 1991, 138).

In other words, the earth is a common treasury.  In order for society to tap the benefits that come with land ownership, limits need to be placed on it, lest the land owner lose the ability to adequately care for it.  Such limits have the added advantage of maximizing the number of land owners.  This sounds, of course, a bit like Thomas Jefferson, America’s leading agrarian spokesperson, and the similarity is indeed obvious.  But this similarity also brought charges of being a hopeless romantic from the likes of both Mill and Marx—though both acknowledged the incredible insights Sismondi relayed in the New Principles, and both quoted him extensively.

But here is the flaw of Mill and Marx as it relates to Sismondi.  They both believed he was a romantic because he foolishly rejected the law-like inevitability of the Industrial Revolution.  They both believed he was an advocate of widely dispersed property ownership and small-scale farming operations as a vain attempt to thwart the inevitable.  But this is far too simplistic, whether it be a description of the intentions of Jefferson or Sismondi.  And this is the greatest shortcoming in extant scholarship related to each of these individuals.  Because the world did not come to look like what they hoped for, they have been charged with romanticism, with living in the past, with every cultural epithet we can think of that says that they were wrong.

An extensive reading of these individuals suggests otherwise, however.  Sismondi’s agrarianism had nothing to do with a rejection of the Industrial Revolution.  It had to do with utilizing economic analysis with the end in mind of improving the human condition—rejecting the leap of faith in the classical tradition that suggests that maximizing a nation’s gross national product is synonymous with improving the human condition.  Probably the most famous quip of Sismondi’s, quoted often, has to do with the position of classical economists who contend that it does not matter if capital employs 100 workers or 1000, as long as the investment generates a high rate of return.  To this kind of thinking—which clearly dominates current “global” economic theory—Sismondi responded that nothing more was needed than for the king of England to turn a crank to produce all the nation’s output.

What Sismondi rejected was the inevitable bias for efficiency that was a natural by-product of the industrial mode of production, a bias that would recommend technological innovation (and worker displacement).  He rejected, as well, the counterargument of the classical economists, that lower costs would offset the downward push on wages created by greater numbers among the unemployed.  The system had the effect of dividing classes of people, Sismondi argued, creating a proletariat completely cut off from the surplus value created by their own labor, generating ever-increasing levels of antipathy between classes.  Marx may have rejected Sismondi as a romantic, but he borrowed heavily from his analysis.

Sismondi did not seek to hide from the Industrial Revolution.  He advocated extensive governmental intervention to deal with it, to check the tendencies it created for ever greater property and capital accumulation.  For example, he argued that day-laborers in the fields or in the factories had a right to compensation for the depreciation of their own work capacities so that they would have the resources to support themselves in old age when they could no longer work.  They had a right to governmental protection from the industrial tendency to step up the speed of machines or to increase the length of the work day.  Far earlier than anyone else, Sismondi warned of the dangers of massive depressions, arguing persuasively for governmental surveillance over technological innovation, he demonstrated the necessity of a minimum wage whether employed or not, a ceiling on the hours of work, a floor and ceiling on the age of work, and the establishment of profit-sharing plans for workers.  Nearly two hundred years before the practice has become acceptable and demonstrably workable, Sismondi advocated worker-owned industrial operations.

The middle, or agrarian way between Mill, the gradualist advocate of reforming the most objectionable aspects of the new industrial economy, and Marx, the revolutionary industrial reformer, had yet more adherents, though, like Sismondi, they remain at the margins despite the brilliance of their scholarship.  We will examine two more before moving back to the story of how fledgling contemporary educational movements resonate with this middle, or agrarian way.  The first is yet another Frenchman, this one with a decidedly mathematical bent.

Leon Walras was born in 1834, the son of French economist Auguste Walras. Early in life Leon demonstrated a passion for literature and as a young man he took employment as a journalist.  He wrote a couple of unremarkable novels before age 30 which may have helped to persuade him to take his father’s advice and devote his life to the study of economics.  Once having done so, Walras became a part of a small group of late nineteenth century scholars who sought to bring the rigor of mathematics to the business of producing economic theory.  Noting that it was one thing to propose a theory, “and quite another to prove it,” Walras looked forward to the day when “mathematical economics will rank with the mathematical sciences of astronomy and mechanics; and on that day justice will be done to our work” (Walras 1954, 48).

Despite his marginal status, again, at least partially due to the fact that his work was only intermittently translated into English (Elements of Pure Economics was not completely available in English until 1954), Walras made first-rate contributions to the study of economics.  He added a more sophisticated conception of scarcity to price theory—now an economics mainstay.  He became the most significant contributor (but even here Sismondi was ahead of him, though Walras does not cite him) to the notion of price equilibrium—using curve charts as demonstration.  And he wrote extensively about the role of “entrepreneurs” in creating economic activity—all well-regarded contributions to mainstream economics.  So why has Walras been relegated to the margins?  If John Stuart Mill taught the world that the question of distribution could be left up to society, he did it at a whisper.  In contrast, Walras said the same thing at the level of a shout.

Walras labeled questions related to distribution “social economics,” likely an unfortunate phrase given the ease with which it can be mistaken for socialism.  But clearly Walras did go farther than Mill in acknowledging the moral dimensions within economic activity: “Moreover, the appropriation of things by persons or the distribution of social wealth among men in society is a moral and not an industrial phenomenon.  It is a relationship among persons” (Walras 1954, 77).

Walras uses the parable of the deer to explain (note that even Walras, near the end of the nineteenth century uses a state of nature argument to make his point):

I imagine a tribe of savages and a deer in a forest.  The deer is a useful thing limited in quantity and hence subject to appropriation.  This point once granted, nothing more needs to be said about it.  To be sure, before the deer can actually be appropriated it has to be hunted and killed.  Again, this side of the question need not detain us, nor need we stop to consider such correlated problems as arise in connection with the need to dress the deer and prepare it in the kitchen.  Quite apart from all of these aspects of a man’s relation to a deer, yet another question claims our attention; for whether the deer is still running about in the forest or has been killed, the question is: who shall have it?  ‘The deer belongs to the one who has killed it!’ cries a young and active member of the tribe, adding, ‘If you are too lazy or if your aim is not good enough, so much the worse for you!’  An older, weaker member replies: ‘No!  The deer belongs to all of us to be shared equally.  If there is only one deer in the forest and you happen to be the one who catches sight of it, that is no reason why the rest of us should go without food.’  Obviously we are here confronted with a phenomenon which is fundamentally social and which gives rise to questions of justice or of the mutual co-ordination of human destinies (Walras 1954, 77).

John Locke was quite sure that the young man had it right, that the deer belongs to the one who killed it.  Does the state of nature prompt men to acquire all the deer, apples, and acorns they can acquire?  Or does it prompt them to come together to set up norms of behavior related to these acquisitions?  This was the splitting point between Locke and Montesquieu.  As political philosophers, they were concerned with what the state of nature meant for the establishment of governmental structures.

But it should be obvious by now that this same state of nature, this same splitting point, was of major import for economists, too, for property claims were clearly made in the act of acquisition.  Goods were acquired and inevitably exchanged.  What economists added to this splitting point was the idea that economic behavior was determined by natural law.  Those who saw the development of industrial production as a part of law-defined life in the modern world, Ricardo and Marx, for instance, tended to take the future out of the realm of human volition.  You could count on human self-interest to produce acquisitive behaviors, to seek the maximization of pleasure, etc., meaning that mathematics calculation and statistical probability were thought to be incredibly powerful tools for economic prediction.  Certainly Walras felt that way.  He might have made room for himself in the world’s economics hall of fame if he hadn’t—like so many of the French tradition—insisted that the young man in the forest was wrong.

Was that young man right?  Or was he wrong?  If you believe he was right you create a governmental system that does not burden citizens beyond the duty to vote once every few years, freeing them for unfettered economic pursuits.  If you believe he was wrong, you create a governmental system that employs citizens in all manner of local political associations so that they have the opportunity to work through the establishment of norms within which economic activity will take place.  Turning from political to economic implications, Walras believed that you embrace an “industrial theory” if you believe the young man was right.  Such a theory “defines those relations between man and things which aim at the increase and transformation of social wealth, and determine the conditions of an abundant production of social wealth within a community.  On the other hand, if you believe the young man was wrong, you employ a theory of property, or what might be better labeled as an agrarian theory, which “defines the mutual relations established between man and man with respect to the appropriation of social wealth, and determines the conditions of the equitable distribution of social wealth within a community” (Walras 1954, 79).

For Walras, the relations between man and man need to be worked out, the circumstances that will define life in a community need to be decided.  For industrial advocates like Ricardo and Marx, laws immune to human volition will take care of this.  For Ricardo, there was nothing that could stop the advance of industrialism; for Marx, that same advance of industrialism would, law-like, bring about the ascendancy of the worker.  Mill opened the door a crack to the idea that through human volition the worst tendencies of industrialism could be ameliorated, Walras tried to throw that door open.

He was not alone.  A near-contemporary—this time in England, the hotbed of nineteenth century industrialism—John Ruskin wrote perhaps the world’s most devastating critique of the classical economic tradition as well as the radical socialist tradition represented by Marx.  The small book is composed of four extended essays and is entitled Unto This Last.  It severely chastised the field of political economy and as a result it was conscientiously ignored; besides, nineteenth century political economists had no answers for Ruskin’s penetrating questions.  There wasn’t much else they could do, except ignore it.  In this way, it too fell to the margins of the field, rarely ever read by economists trained during the twentieth century.

John Ruskin was born in London in 1819, the son of a prosperous wine merchant.  He demonstrated remarkable intellectual curiosity as a child and as a relatively young man he garnered a reputation as an art and architecture scholar, publishing volumes of work that were so popular that he rapidly achieved the status of one of Europe’s leading intellectuals. Because of this, the general public was caught off guard when he published four essays on political economy in four successive issues of Cornhill Magazine, August through November, 1860. Two years later the essays were published together as a book and titled Unto This Last.

Ruskin’s essays were an assault on the classical tradition and therefore scorned by many leading intellectuals who ardently believed that the wretched circumstances created by an embrace of industrialism were inevitable, and that rampant poverty was brought on by the poor themselves.  Even though Ruskin explicitly rejected socialist doctrine in the essays, much to the chagrin of Marx, he was nevertheless accused of being a socialist in an attempt to discredit him and to minimize his readership.  It worked.  The book sold very poorly.  If it had not been for his impeccable reputation as a scholar in the fields of art and architecture, it probably would have fared even worse.  But it is nevertheless there, waiting in the margins for the world to re-discover.

Few today refer to Ruskin as an agrarian thinker, yet he is probably a better fit for such a label than many who possess it.  Ruskin argued in a manner reminiscent of the physiocrats,

All essential (his emphasis) production is for the Mouth . . . hence, consumption is the crown of production; and the wealth of a nation is only to be estimated by what it consumes.  The want of any clear sight of this fact is the capital error . . . among political economists.  Their minds are constantly set on money-gain, not mouth gain; and they fall into every sort of net and snare, dazzled by the coin-glitter as birds by the fowler’s glass; or rather (for there is not much else like birds in them) they are like children trying to jump on the heads of their own shadows; the money-gain the shadow of the true gain, which is humanity (Ruskin 1985, 219-220).

Ruskin’s pen was sharp.  He was disgusted with the social conditions of England during the middle decades of the nineteenth century.  He lambasted the likes of Mill and Ricardo for failing to acknowledge the relationship between the amassing of great wealth and the proliferation of poverty, thus perpetuating a fiction that continues to find believers to this day, that it is possible for everyone to be rich.  The motive power of men resides in a soul, argued Ruskin, and “the force of this very peculiar agent, as an unknown quantity, enters into all the political economist’s equations, without his knowledge, and falsifies every one of their results” (Ruskin 1985, 170).  Or consider this barb, “The real science of political economy, which has yet to be distinguished from the bastard science, as medicine from witchcraft, and astronomy from astrology, is that which teaches nations to desire and labour for things that lead to life” (Ruskin 1985, 209).  And last,

Unhappily for the progress of the science of Political Economy, the plus quantities . . . make a very positive and venerable appearance in the world, so that everyone is eager to learn the science which produces results so magnificent; whereas the minuses have, on the other hand, a tendency to retire into back streets, or other places of shade—or even to get themselves wholly and finally put out of sight in graves: which renders the algebra of this science peculiar, and differently legible; a large number of its negative signs being written by the account-keeper in a kind of red ink, which starvation thins, and makes strangely pale, or even quite invisible ink, for the present (Ruskin 1985, 213).

Ruskin revealed the true nature of the relationship between wealth and poverty in a manner that has yet to be adequately answered by the classical economics tradition.  Said Ruskin,

Men nearly always speak and write as if riches were absolute, and it were possible, by following certain scientific precepts, for everybody to be rich.  Whereas riches are a power like that of electricity, acting only through inequalities or negations of itself.  The force of the guinea you have in your pocket depends wholly on the default of a guinea in your neighbour’s pocket.  If he did not want it, it would be of no use to you; the degree of power it possesses depends accurately upon the need or desire he has for it—and the art of making yourself rich is therefore equally and necessarily the art of keeping your neighbour poor (Ruskin 1985, 180-181).

Ruskin’s analysis demonstrates the quandary faced by a modern society that chooses to define human nature as essentially economic and then designates freedom as the supreme human value.  If life is essentially about economics, then freedom means little more than the freedom to get rich.  The problem with this, as Ruskin so ably demonstrates, is that the freedom of the rich is acquired only through the denial of freedom among the poor.  The nature of wealth prohibits it from happening in any other way.

The answer to this dilemma is of course the same answer offered in different ways by the likes of Ogilivie, Jefferson, Paine, Sismondi, Walras, and many others: carefully crafted policy that prevents the creation of extreme discrepancies between wealth and poverty.  For these representatives of an agrarian worldview, freedom is essentially about having a voice in the decisions that affect oneself, not about the absence of restraints in the economic arena.  That is to say, freedom is a political value which, once popularly exercised, will result in morally-crafted policy that avoids the discord and divisiveness which necessarily accompanies unlimited accumulation.

There is much more that might be said about Ruskin’s Unto This Last, like how as early as 1860 he recognized the slogan “free trade” as synonymous with the absence of competition rather than its enlargement—an early commentary on GATT, NAFTA, and other free trade agreements (Ruskin 1985, 200).  But perhaps Ruskin’s most prescient insight—the one that speaks most directly to the twenty-first century--had to do with recognizing the power of consumption and the relationship between consumption and a nation’s social well-being.  “The vital question,” wrote Ruskin, “for individual and for nation, is, never ‘how much do they make?’ but ‘to what purpose do they spend?’”  Noting that “wise consumption is a far more difficult art than wise production” (Ruskin 1985, 218). Ruskin believed that an unjust economy will be built on indiscriminant spending; a just economy is built around well-considered spending:

In all buying, consider, first, what condition of existence you cause in the producers of what you buy; secondly, whether the sum you have paid is just to the producer, and in due proportion, lodged in his hands; thirdly, to how much clear use, for food, knowledge, or joy, this that you have bought can be put; and fourthly, to whom and in what way it can be most speedily and serviceably distributed (Ruskin 1985, 227-228).

There were plenty of non-socialist alternatives to the inequities and inequalities that accompanied the rise of capitalism red in tooth and claw.  None of the individuals representing alternatives to the classical economics tradition—Ogilivie, Paine, Sismondi, Walras, Ruskin—followed Karl Marx, but nor were they willing to follow Smith, Ricardo, or Mill.  In going their own way, they created a third alternative.  They gave modern society a glimpse of what it might become, never knowing that humankind would reach the point where environmental exigencies, rather than a humanitarian embrace of justice, would lead us back to their work.  Even Mill felt compelled to express his hope that the world’s population “will be content to be stationary, long before necessity compels them to it” (Mill 1988, 116).

Conclusion
It doesn’t appear that Mill’s hope will be fulfilled.  Our embrace of industrial values has sent us headlong into a period of global Environmental Crisis of the sort the world has never known.  Few hold much hope that the a governmental system dominated by the nation’s wealthiest citizens, and one beholden to corporate interests for their very seat in the halls of power, will take a proactive policy stand related to the exigencies to come.  But change has always come from the margins—and that is precisely where agrarian values lie.  It is at the margins where one will today find educational approaches intended to balance the preparation for economic life with preparation for political life.

Corrections to our current cultural trajectories will only occur through educational effort.  An educational system geared toward workplace readiness that yields little intellectual wherewithal over the interplay of economics and the environment, over the relationship of poverty to wealth, or over the role of community in a Democracy will only reinforce the status quo.  Many believe this is why the Bush administration has pushed an educational agenda that inhibits pedagogical change or creativity.  But such a shortsighted educational agenda can’t remain the order of the day for long.  Better ideas can’t be kept at bay forever.

A non-industrial, that is to say agrarian, worldview can re-emerge in time to check the excesses that are heating the earth’s atmosphere, but educational efforts currently at the margins will need to move front and center “with all deliberate speed.”  At the outset we cited project-based learning, social reconstructionist pedagogy, and community-based curriculum as old educational ideas that are enjoying a small, but noticeable resurgence.  It is precisely these kinds of educational effort, we believe, that are necessary in order to prepare citizens for the burden of producing solutions to global problems.  Why?

For one, because these approaches remove self-interest as the primary benefit derived from an education.  They elevate the social and political dimensions to life so that they are at least on par with the economic dimension.  Second, by accomplishing something of substance through the very act of learning—say, as an example, learning art through the production of a mural that improves the aesthetics of one’s neighborhood—students learn first-hand about the sense of fulfillment that comes with being of service to others.  Third, learning becomes immediate and not something to be held until life happens after one’s time in school is over.  The mathematics that helped students produce a community cash flow survey was learned and immediately wielded to the benefit of one’s family and neighbors.  This is precisely the kind of citizenship education that schools ought to provide.

In time, schools could become the kind of research vehicle that helps communities shoulder the burden of ethical consumption Ruskin described in the nineteenth century—knowing “what condition of existence you cause in the producers of what you buy.”  Projects of this sort on a nation-wide basis would contribute markedly to an improved Culture, one that raises the well-being of communities and neighborhoods as essential criteria for policy-making.  As is the case for some places right now, schools across the country could become catalysts to locally-produced food and energy in the interest of stopping human contributions to an ever-warming atmosphere.

We could go on and on with examples.   Our point is that educational effort of substance will be required to get the most out of that small set of ideas—agrarianism, the commons, no-growth economics, and the maximum wage—that hold the greatest promise for solving the world’s most vexing problems.


References

Bowers, C. A. 2006. Revitalizing the Commons: Cultural and Educational Sites of Resistance and   Affirmation. Lanham, Maryland: Rowman and Littlefield.

Cooke, Jacob. ed. 1964. The Reports of Alexander Hamilton. New York: Harper and Row.

Dobson, Austin. comp. 1927. The Poetical Works of Oliver Goldsmith. London: Oxford University Press.

Donahue, Brian. 2001. Reclaiming the Commons: Farms and Forests in a New England Town. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

Freyfogle, Eric T. ed. 2001. The New Agrarianism: Land, Culture, and the Community of Life. Washington, DC: Island Press.

Hardin, Garrett. 1968. “The Tragedy of the Commons.” Science, 162: 1243-1248.

Ogilivie, William. 1798. 1970 edition. Birthright in Land: An Essay on the Right of Property in Land. New York: Augustus Kelley.

Okugawa, Otohiko. 1980. “Annotated list of utopian and communal societies, 1787-1919.” In Dictionary of American Communal and Utopian History, edited by Robert S. Fogarty, Westport, CT: Greenwood.

Mill, John Stuart. 1848. 1988 edition. The Principles of Political Economy.  New York: Penguin.

Montmarquet, James A. 1989. The Idea of Agrarianism: From Hunter-Gatherer to Agrarian Radical in Western Culture. Moscow, ID: University of Idaho Press.

National Commission on Excellence in Education, 1983. A Nation at Risk. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office.

Ruskin, John. 1862. 1985 edition. Unto this Last. New York: Penguin.

Sismondi, Jean Charles Leonard. 1828. 1966 edition. Political Economy and the Philosophy of Government.  New York: Augustus Kelley.

Sismondi, Jean Charles Leonard. 1819. 1991 edition. New Principles of Political Economy.  New York: Augustus Kelley.

Theobald, Paul. 1997. Teaching the Commons: Place, Pride, and the Renewal of Community. Boulder, CO: Westview.

Van der Weyde, William. ed. 1925. The Life and Works of Thomas Paine. New Rochelle, NY: Thomas Paine National Historical Association.

Walras, Leon. 1874. 1954 edition. Elements of Pure Economics. London: George Allen and Unwin.
Wirzba, Norman. ed. 2003. The Essential Agrarian Reader: The Future of Culture, Community, and the Land. Lexington, KY: University of Kentucky Press.

Further correspondence should be address to Paul Theobald Woods-Beals Professor of Urban and Rural Education; Caudell Hall 108; Buffalo State College; 1300 Elmwood Avenue; Buffalo, NY   14222; or Hibajene Shandomo, Assistant Professor of Elementary Education, Bacon Hall, Buffalo State College, 1300 Elmwood Avenue, Buffalo, NY 14222



 
< Prev   Next >
generic from colchicine online pharmacy uk atrovent coversyl 10mg purchase zofran in uk inderal fast uk zyvox buy online australia 10mg phenergan ok for pregnancy very cheap abana how long does zoloft stay in your system endep tablets us online isoptin with no perscription free or low cost bupron sr bactrim medication classification what pain medicine can i take with voltaren side effects of methotrexate for ra beta val perth australia can you take ciprofloksacin daily robaxin order by phone brand claritin buy antifludes junior safe tofranil buy lanoxin canada drug store topamax canadian online albuterol sulfate nebulizer american mycelex g walmart online expense report dispersible aspirin overdose erythromycin without a perscription where can i order bystolic non prescription stieva a pharmacy isotretin prix en pharmacie en france how to buy cephalexin online purchase cialis soft on line in india mexico pharmacies online that sell caprysin diclofenac sodium gel uses nymphomax in italia best site to buy viagra professional diovan echeck renagel on line in the india what does olanzapine look like viagra sublingual drug in germany pharmacy alavert for purchase without a prescription levothroid user reviews dominican republic viagra drink viagra plus online canada desyrel without a prescription from australia canada buy trental without prescription cheapest indocin in the uk sale estrofem isoniazid dosage pregnancy ordering aldactone uk zydis over the counter periactin cost in canada how to order advair diskus doxycycline hyclate 50 mg price buy nolvadex online credit card order cymbalta proventil comprar can i buy hydroxyzine over the counter cheap ciprofloxacina free delivery lasix over counter uk uk pharmacies online that sell curacne brand levitra tablets 40mg luvox and cold medicine buy generic clincin online with prescription viagra plus generic for buy synthroid cheap no prescription what do zoloft pills look like generic finasteride propecia finpecia tadalis generic 2013 drugs online prescriptions uk seroquel side effects uk levitra professional no prescription reviews buy synthroid perth australia cleocin pharmacy mail order furosemide 20 mg tab ldn low dose naltrexone ms watermelon same viagra buy estrofem pills in the australia tretinoin 0,025 weight gain tadacip 10mg diclofenac sodium dosage 50 mg buy acticin permethrin discount brand propecia for sale diltiazem tablets 90 mg what is zanaflex like where can i get tizanidina generic uk paypal protonix where to inject phenergan lantus uk pen how to buy pulmicort in canada mevacor perth australia diarex sale discount carafate of canada how long does ventolin last in your system order acticin on line usa tretinoin 0 025 reviews for men cabaser order online buy prednisolone with no prescription blue lotus pills drug test order isoniazid from canada without prescription cheap allinclusive holidays to tenerife fml forte online price used accutane the acne came back over the counter medicine yaz where can i buy disulfiramo mg double propecia dose saroten 50 mg types rescue inhalers asthma buy xenical online no prescription uk generic bupron sr uk paypal order generic sertralina brand name levitra online atacand missed dose ocular side effects of isoniazid where to buy cialis sublingual online india neurontin from usa the online drugstore albendazole walmart pharmacy mexico maine clomid dose male strongest over the counter antibiotic cream doxycycline on line in the uk cheap canadian lasuna no prescription doxycycline malaria lloyds pharmacy buy simvastatina tablets usa alti doxycycline online without rx zyrtec daily use reviews buy ivenox online india no prescription buy malegra dxt pills in the india getting yagara in australia canadian pharmacy health mall buy clotrimazole and betamethasone dipropionate cream online ventolin albuterol of salbutamol is there a shortage of motrin herbal cialis uk femara legal us carbozyne tablets uses buy ephedraxin in ireland tramadol overdose buy online uroxatral generic buy generic nexium online with prescription esperal fast usa side effects of omeprazole 20 mg where can i buy januvia risperdal prescription help cilest online pharmacy uk albenda buy without fertomid visa buy prednisolone without rx order generic amlodipinbesilat colchicina from usa desyrel drug in germany pharmacy can you take cialis sublingual daily online prednisolona india buying salbutamol in manchester generic erythromycin in usa lisinopril 10mg tab internl lb ovral l pills online in the india forzest next day shipping didronel drugstore.com cheap salvent sale uk brand buspar buy billig hydrea online kaufen buy dipyridamole online mexico no prescription can you buy atrovent over the counter in germany buy atacand us discount alli otc ciprofloxacina online in canada maxalt generic side effects cephalexin mail order india purchase himcocid where to buy motrin 800 fast differin deleviery diovan price ondansetron odt 8 mg pregnancy ordering doxepin is brand advair diskus a prescription drug v gel mg india discount metronidazole from usa cytotec dosage for fetal demise leukeran to buy in the uk without a prescription buy canadian lipotrexate cost of ampicillin iv norvasc over the counter valtrex online purchase birth control pills tofranil flagyl and alcohol in food metformin buy online uk quinine sulfate side effects discount code for accutane mentax fast canada generic acnetane uk paypal mentax suppositories buy ampicillin meningitis dose neonates express scripts prior authorization viagra celebrex sales figures purchase prinivil on line in australia cialis with no subscription singulair granules ingredients how long does wellbutrin side effects last zoloft 100 review buy liv 52 online from india medrol dosepak pas cher ciprofloksacin over the counter uk lamictal buy online us do you need rx uroxatral can you buy lozol over the counter elavil for migraines side effects cheap flucazole pills can buy lipothin online american retin a 0,025 erection after ejaculation catholic hospitals cover viagra perrigo mometasone furoate ointment usp promathazine where to buy pharmacy artane castle shopping centre over the counter online avapro without antabuse with prescription rhinocort aqua 64 micrograms dose asthma inhalers without prescriptions best levitra prices 20mg online pharmacy seasonique buy australia how to by mentax online over the counter medicine pilex buy aprovel mg online paroxetine 20 mg high buy cabgolin tablets uk side effects of cialis soft prevacid generic for prilosec order online no prescription what is novo clonidine used for ortho cyclen delivery uk comprar celexa portugal mexican export pharmacy 100 mg seroquel high trazodone by mail diclofenac dosage 75 mg where to buy zovirax buy elimite mexican pharmacies prescription nitroglycerin chest prevent lotrel online pharmacy uk split cialis tablet hydrodiuril mexico companies only moduretic online australia over the counter meds for valtrex apo salvent inhaler side effects comprare diflucan elimite without subscription how to get purim in australia order trental from india without prescription moduretic pill shop discount code what does pyridium do to urine canada drugs rumalaya gel with prescription best place to buy brand viagra online buy hydrochlorothiazide pills in the uk where to get luvox pct order metrogel online no presctiption colonoscopy prep dulcolax pills disulphiram canada prescription very cheap diltiazem omifin para hombres what is drug januvia for how much will prednisolona cost prescription solutions pharmacy contracting cialis price paypal revatio mexico companies only prilosec buy online uk what is ranitidine pills used for avodart with no rx generic aspirin name to buy movalis in uk comprar etodolac original en madrid remeron without a script drugs similar to ranitidine buy fml forte cheap discount unisom mg curacne canada online no prescription lamisilate cost in canada how many clomid tablets to take a day american aricept nitroglycerin tablets without prescription cialis for sale in uk buy brand duetact side effects of atenolol 25mg doxycycl hyc 100mg dosage amlodipine 20mg canadian pharmacy online india online pharmacy store prednisolona uk sale buy dutas with paypal alli weight loss pills wikipedia buy topamax xr without prescription stuff that works like viagra prescription drugs online usa where to buy cheap generic kamagra soft order midamor from canada without prescription azithromycin chlamydia alcohol adalat coupons celapram online pay paypal brand lariam for sale cost of mail retin a gel 0,1 brand kamagra soft for sale cheapest place to buy ondansetrona order ahdhd pills olistat uk online best place to buy buspar in india online purchase of drugs in india much does propecia cost australia comprar warafin portugal fosamax plus d best place buy zerit pct diflucan fast mexico purchasing combivent online uk buy ayurslim greece pharmacy mexico pletal fluconazole pregnancy fda vasotec from usa pharmacy what are the common side effects of fosamax ranitidine 100 mg ashwagandha price per kg lamisilate price india bactrim by mail order tadacip suppositories buy prozac birth control online uk affordable rx canada pharmacy bible verses about being content where can i get cytotec in south africa cheapest zithromax dostinex generico inderal 100 promethazine order on web buy baridium online canada cialis super active delivery london levitra plus sale prescription generic premarin cream india buy zentel pills in the uk amaryl with no subscription metformin 850 mg buy fexofenadine uk best generic trileptal review kamagra gold tablets online trial erection packs 2 pills como comprar blopress buy fml forte overseas cytotec in labor and delivery risperdal sales caprysin with paypal payment canadian pharmacy online no prescription buy cheap strattera most reliable place to buy prevacid online trental refill pack zocor or simvastatin lawsuits nizagara online canadian buying phexin using paypal purchase meclizine mg where to buy cheap viagra proventil tablets purchase on line buy tricor 145 mg compare prices prevacid usa buy propranolol without prescription prevacid order canada cholestoplex without prescription pills prilosec without prescrip order weight gain voveran sr rx pharmacy online hcg levitra 20mg boots furosemide 40 mg prospect aristocort capsules prilosec 40 mg dosage what is clonidine hydrochloride tablets used for zyrtec delivery what is metformin hcl used to treat crestor birth control online us cheap cytotec for sale tadapox noprescrition needed canada online pharmacy comprar silagra cvs pharmacy rx coupons pariet us companies only purchase trial erection packs 2 on line in canada buy nootropil online uk no prescription acheter zyvox actos prescription discount card misoprost canada aceon on line in the india lithium on line in the uk ginseng from canada with no prescription buy meds online reviews antivert without a prescription from australia order actoplus met from mexico without prescription levothyroid generic usa long term side effects of cabgolin purchase hydrodiuril lowest price buy januvia online in the united states without a prescription ondansetrona over the counter januvia mg canada zithromax without a prescription from australia travelling with prescription medicine order cipro hc no prescription serophene online legally serpina by mail order where can i get viagra over the counter in sydney order colchicina on line india buy nymphomax 80 mg online effexor xr uk online zertalin from uk rxlist tegretol drug free or low cost furosemide chloroquine pharmacy prices list brahmi prices cvs proventil mg india kids claritin ingredients buy dipyridamole online from canada france viagra online pharmacy buy sorbitrate without a prescription from canadian pharmacy how to use voltaren riperdal generic reviews order zocor from uk without prescription what does pulmicort ortho cyclen pct buy zyvox on line in the uk where to buy cheap generic toprol xl acquisto acai sicuro online janumet over the counter canada buy myambutol online reviews voltaren australia news amaryl composition what is the generic form of keppra how to by trental online lifestyle herald acai usa best place to buy premarin online cleocin gel spain over counter celexa price india health canada aciphex atorvastatin 40 mg no prescription buy ciplox 15mg online how to purchase tadapox online salbutamol fast usa phenamax uk brand name oracea online uk retin a 0,025 generic 2013 drugs where do i relafen in india non generic imitrex can you only get synthroid on prescription etabus without a script best place to buy ortho tri cyclen alesse reviews pill zantac mg order cozaar fast canada nexium store generic affordable acticin refills kamagra 100 gold roaccutane birth control online uk billig depakote online kaufen best price for bystolic risperdal online purchase zebeta usa buying tinidazolum using paypal penegra on line with no prescription viagra discrete shipping where can i buy voltaren mg promethazine comprar lanoxin in croatia buy tetracycline 5 best way get pain pills hospital doxycycline acne australia cardizem in canada what types of chloroquine are there nolvadex canadian medications without prescription exelon discount safe buy ortho tri cyclen online buy phenamax low cheap price buy bystolic at canadian pharmacy canadian pharmacy uroxatral order amoxiline online without rx long term safety of coreg cheap compazine buy online is generic amlodipin effective order actos online canada lotensin generic usa cyklokapron reviews and dosage duetact generic wikipedia drugs where can i buy aldactone for hair loss accutane legal us levitra professional australia companies only no prescription himcocid sale advair diskus without prescription pills effexor xr supplier in uk no prescription nitrofurantoin buy atrovent paypal accepted ciprofloksacin buy without the online drugstore atarax safe buy curacne online i want to pay some serevent order doxazosin from mexico without prescription buy acticin tablets india allopurinol pills online in the mexico no prescription metformin online baclofen online kaufen zyvox mg tablet buy cefadroxil xr without prescription lotrisone in italia valtrex in italian cheap canadian triamterenum no prescription toradol medication migraine prescription drug aricept comprar ceftin online ephedraxin over counter top 10 meds for depression craigslist usa cars virginia best place to buy chloramphenicol cheap genuine suhagra online mentat online bestellen buy himcolin pills in the canada geriforte pill shortage order ciprofloxacina on line uk what is atacand mg used to treat discount canadian pharmacy viagra soft generic uk paypal carafate pharmacy has best price rythmol sr cheap cymbalta without rx what is sildenafil genfar med cab toprol xl lisinopril without prescription medication site pour acheter la pilule alli buy levitra super active with keflex tablets 250mg can you buy procardia in ireland vagifem doctors online what is the half life of lamictal xr what is topamax for migraines long term side effects of avalide mircette pills online in the australia topamax coupons online inderal pill shortage sommerferien bayer 2012 online sale of tofranil over the counter medicine levitra ordering trial erection packs 3 western drug duphalac zithromax online uk amoxiline over the counter south african pharmacies online buy cymbalta mg online buy omnicef new zealand online seasonique uk companies only order nitroglycerin on line usa long term side effects of glucophage cymbalta prescription assistance acheter livres en ligne belgique aristocort bonus pills best place buy abana pct buy ginseng mg lortab elixir high how to take diclofenac sodium 50mg buy danazol online india generic maxalt no prescription non prescription eltroxin pharmacy yagara where to purchase roaccutan canada companies only where to buy moduretic with amex buy real evista can you buy allegra over the counter buying aristocort for dogs caffeine ergotamine mg order wellbutrin sr overnight pharmacy order otomax online no prescription with a visa avapro mg canada advair diskus without script generic wellbutrin usa pharmacies depakote online lopid discount medications florida metformin generic brand of cialis best place to buy raloxifeno in uk lopid pills online in the canada can i order dostinex online i pill nitroglycerin website i pill anastrozolo website dyazide canada companies only lamisil tablets cost celexa to buy in the canada without a prescription list of tesco stores selling pyridium l thyroxine mg buy culturismo y fitness merienda nosh aspirin for sale buy duprost with a mastercard caffeine ergotamine online forum demadex doctors online cipralex on line in the mexico tindamax online pharmacies with out prescription what is innopran xl pills used for albendazole generic equivalent sale serpina lasix prescription only where to buy nizoral shampoo in australia nizagara where to buy in canada keflex cost walgreens venlor online order lov cost liv 52 order antibiotics online from canada where can i buy fertomid in canada yagara with prescription cialis super active bonus pills best place to buy robaxin in canada tetracycline 30 day free trial best place to buy atacand in canada plendil from usa zoloft sales 2009 legal online female viagra is there a drug comparative to nizagara purchase zyban in uk verapamil offshore pharmacy over the counter isoniazid carvedilolo fast mexico is there a drug comparative to diltiazem what is the cost of cleocin cafergot generic drug can you get keflex mylan a1 xanax effects oristal women buy stan kurtz valtrex taca now alphagan refill pack how to take live band photos online pharmacy uk triamterenum buy voltaren emulgel overnight online pharmacy no prescription salvent online from uk buy genuine aldactone uk how to buy baridium in canada amoxil recommended dosage olanzapine order in the us comprar serpina original en madrid trial erection packs 2 from usa order arzomicin online uk plavix delivery get vpxl toronto symptoms of anxiety attack nhs comprar asacol pela internet low price lariam uk calan express canada suppliers of tinidazole in us voltaren 100 mg dosage probalan medication overnight delivery how to get doksazosin lek in australia dilantin seizure medication side effects microzide shortage retin a 0 025 delivery uk veterinary prednisone better than trandate cheapest place to buy vardenafilum canadian pet pharmacy no prescription safe buy viagra plus online has propecia become generic stromectol without prescrip vermox recommended dosage amaryl india pharmacy canadian drug company antara buy aldactone cheap viagra plus uk buy voltaren 200 buy dipyridamole online amazon buy rosuvastatin online us no prescription promethazine lawsuit where can i buy phentermine hcl 37.5 buy generic arava online with prescription can you take prevacid daily where can i get viramune pills almetec australia price how long does it take for elavil to work for sleep buy snovitra super power without a subscription order altace 10mg arimidex roche precio argentina flagyl online in uk pharmacies america purchase desyrel online no prescription grifulvin v tablets uk online effexor overnight delivery arzomicin mg tablet deltasone birth control online mexico does 10 mg of elavil cause weight gain where to buy eldepryl silagra by mail order order arava from mexico without prescription percocet from uk aciphex pills use where can i get serpina pills cialis ad i euro testosterone cream men effects lotensin where can i buy is rosuvastatin available on line in canada buy floxin with no script yasmin generic uk buy bentyl without prescription generic zyprexa overnite shipping where to buy xenical online mexico calan pharmacy online cheap depakote uk overnight cod torsemide next day shipping antara birth control online australia can you get midamor the chepest lamictal levitra side effects in men generic plavix canada pharmacy femara reviews for men fertomid generic equivalent cabgolin cheap uk pharmacy flovent next day shipping voveran next day shipping can you buy azulfidine in ireland us pharmacies online that sell metformin can you get high off unisom how long does it take for mobic to become effective actoplus met mg canadian rx shopping for protonix affordable without prescription adverse effects of accutane on fetus online toprol xl overnight delivery 3 key components healthy weight management program purchasing metrogel online synthroid online india american diabetes association guidelines aspirin use rogaine 5 mg mexico buy viagra western australia buy claravis online with out prescription comprar seroflo online buy mobic pills in the us mail order generic tricor forzest us pharmacy buy cilest online with out prescription american diabetes association aspirin therapy lov cost sarafem buy brand viagra online us no prescription generic mirapex no prescription where do i buy crestor buy vardenafil on line hydrochlorothiazide 20 mg casodex discount premarin sublingual dosage ivenox australia price safe effexor xr no precription viagra official seller clomiphene for sale in us buy digoxin with mastercard viagra jelly with no rx comprar yaz original flunil prescription only prednisona mg tablet roxithromycin no prescription needed canadian online pharmacy where could i buy cialis sublingual without prescription where to buy parlodel online without rx sex pills houston tx how to get birth control pills without prescriptions zebeta pills online in the usa canadian online pharmacy for effexor xr lantus drug in mexico pharmacy purchase suhagra mg order gyne lotrimin tablets estrofem buy online mexico caprysin lowest price actos online canada celebrex common side effects is it safe to buy kamagra online 2012 updates in levaquin lawsuits can you buy benicar online prescription buy unisom online cheap pharmacy has best price cefadroxil order pyridium from mexico without prescription como comprar livros em portugues no ibooks buy quibron t pills in the us pharmacy direct centurion cyklokapron us pharmacy to buy avalide in uk buy metronidazol tablets uk viagra online uk pfizer best place to buy metronidazole in mexico where do i elocon in india safe to buy doxycycline online can i order noroxin no prescription in the usa suprax comprar mentat ds syrup generic 2013 drugs estrofem without a prescription beat way to order styplon yaz generic mexico buy generic cheap accutane online buy confido online safely zyban not generic buy adalat tablets uk accutane lawsuit settlements 2010 buy wellbutrin have no prescription glucotrol xl birth control online india nootropil western australia how long does it take aldactone to work for hair loss how to get propranolol on line sildenafila shelf life mevacor 50mg tablets asacol dosage recommended lamisil coupons 2012 prescription robaxin tramadol what is ic doxycycline hyclate 100mg cap compare prices advair buy alesse cheap online pharmacy tamsulozin fast india can you only get combivent on prescription metrogel online from canada rocaltrol without prescription depakote purchase elavil lawsuit canada buy minocycline low cheap price plendil 10 mg better than lansoprazol asacol mr side effects betnovate cost online roxithromycin with no prescription carbozyne brands india buy seroquel online amazon doxycycline cost cvs star pharmacy nogales mexico e coli ampicillin resistance buy levothyroid pills in the uk best price for anafranil generic brand for alli minocycline tablets 50mg pregnancy where do i avodart in canada buy plavix online no prescription septilin delivery london confido shopping aygestin canada online no prescription what does strattera do clonidine uk brand name generic relafen safe order nitrofurantoin without prescription coupons for crestor 40 mg generic aricept usa cost of mail pravachol comment acheter du viagra en espagne elavil prix en pharmacie en france compare prices florinef sale sarafem cheapest drug trazodone furosemide mechanism of action mims meds without scripts suppliers of calan in us buy chloromycetin paypal buy shallaki without prescription fluoxetine for sale australia trimox no prescription buy erexin v tablets online prescription substitute for allegra where can i get tamsulozin kwikmed coupon code 2012 generic claritin doesnt work yasmin sales 2010 clonidine adhd side effects bupropion on line no script buying cordarone from canada no prescription diltiazem for sale online nimotop non perscription countries roxithromycin 150mg whooping cough what is ic cephalexin 500mg used for purchase generic flucazole buy cheap clomid no prescription clomiphene retin a 0 025 no prescription reviews buy generic levitra plus online with prescription generic cialis sublingual no prescription strattera class action lawsuit what is the typical dose of topamax for migraines can i order amoxicilina online voveran reviews for men cialis jelly online pharmacy uk cialis professional cheap online drugstore in the uk purchase motilium lowest price roaccutane over counter low price ampicillin uk benadryl without subscription buy tamoxifen from canada trimox from mexico chloramphenicol generic emsam prescription coupon can you buy delta cortef prilosec online cheap pro slim acai reviews drugs similar to oristal levaquin dose what does zaditor do where to buy provera amoxil medication on line sarafem to buy from europe where do i diovan in india dulcolax maximum daily dose bupropionum uk sale actoplus met 100mg cheap ondansetrona pct buy do you need rx sildenafila dosage of reglan for breastfeeding hyzaar 100 buy pulmicort online no prescription uk cafergot to buy in the usa without a prescription how to use motilium ginseng sold over counter erexin v 100 order erection packs 2 without rx generic cefadroxil uk order terramycin from clavamox no prescription needed canadian online pharmacy zovirax prices at costco shuddha guggulu 10 mg prandin in the uk now mestinon usa cvs prices buying lisinopril using paypal purchase microzide in mexico what is the cost of viagra in canada buy compazine mg online for azithromycin alcohol chlamydia digoxin drugs for sale order aristocort on line usa prednisone z pack dosage indian generics online zyprexa l tryptophan refills retin a without a prescription from india actos lawsuit bladder cancer tetracycline hydrochloride dosage for dogs claravis mexico companies only glucotrol xl discount medications what are the side effects of the drug requip buy bisoprololi fumaras tablets mexico original lariam online combivent canada cvs pharmacy generic drug list can you buy phenamax are generic drugs manufactured in india safe tadalafil generic uk best place to buy cialis super active in usa aciphex delivery pharmacy fedex donde comprar methotrexate en venezuela kamagra canada online buy tretinoin greece cymbalta 60 mg canada glucofage no prescription overnight delivery donde comprar brand viagra atorlip 5 generic wikipedia drugs wellbutrin sr generic uk best place to buy dutas in usa prometrium order on web can i get pregnant on zithromax lamictal online coupon code can you only get sepibest on prescription finasteride generic etodolac consumer reviews zoloft costco pharmacy mircette tablets uses sinequan to buy in the usa without a prescription bystolic used anxiety gyne lotrimin costco lady era india companies only buy beconase aq online mexico no prescription acquistare viagra soft in italia us pharmacy online asacol donde comprar ciproheptadina twitter stats 2012 desyrel pills online in the canada silagra where to purchase what class of medication is ventolin store brand prevacid how to get bystolic drug buy ambien online online nordette overnight delivery sertralina uk sale how to order amlodipin online which uk site to buy cardizem suhagra 100 mg price india is mobic safe for dogs trileptal overnight pharmacy indian generics online prednisone mexican pharmacy no prescription disulfiramum zyrtec d behind pharmacy counter can i order ortho cyclen online uk pharmacies online that sell cialis jelly cialis levitra viagra review order olistat on line uk buy venlafaxina with a mastercard cheap metronidazole uk lexapro on line in the usa can youtube buy levitra super active in ireland 20mg uk fastest way to get cialis where to get zyloprim pct fml forte dosage too high celexa brands india thyrohormone mg mexico viagra plus generic cialis raciper canada buy styplon hong kong cheapest ortho tri cyclen generic ciplox canada best price for real albendazole meclizine no prescription needed retin a 0,025 to buy where can i order alphagan voltaren 50mg tab norvasc drugs buy procardia tablets usa can i order levoxyl online online confido purchase hytrin over counter uk non prescription trandate no prescription cialis usa probalan order canada how to take protonix 40 mg can you only get naprosyn on prescription coversyl online legally has anyone bought generic viagra online accutane without prescriptions what is a good replacement for celebrex buy fucidin cream online without prescription order cymbalta online no presctiption accutane buy online cheap isotretinoin soft tabs viagra ventolin order clincin buy no prescription atorlip 10 on line in the india kamagra jelly in australia best place to buy medazole online buy cheap flomaxtra mexican pharmacy no prescription cardura buying cipralex using paypal reglan sale from canadian company buy cheap benicar pills healthy waist size for 61 male lukol tablets from buy buy prevacid without a subscription overnight online order nolvadex clomifene india companies only order atorlip 5 overnight robaxin without insurance ivenox drug in canada pharmacy salbumol tablets uses where can i get malegra dxt from janumet from mexico generic uk paypal sominex generic lamisil buy sarafem online without prescription liquid female cialis review prednisolone pill shop discount code gasex canada head office retin a 0 05 on line no script albendazole with paypal payment order tamsulozin from india without prescription how many diflucan pills can you take tinidazolum noprescrition needed canada online pharmacy liv 52 buy online india can you legally order drugs from canada carvedilolo pas cher buy yagara mexican pharmacies parlodel online order cardizem overnight shipping cheap para que sirve el amoxil overnight pharmacy lasix cod buy thyrox tablets us florida stediril buy clomid free shipping generic cozaar switzerland evista pills online in the canada online pharmacy citalopram orlistar mg buy bentyl discounts codes oxytrol patch dose isotretin mg no prescription buy effexor xr pills in the uk claritin dose for cats purchase abilify 1 pharmacy free fax where to purchase vardenafilum buy pariet rabeprazole sodium no prescription terramycin sale lotrisone mail order topamax next day delivery tretinoin cream usp 0.025 side effects prednisone 20 mg canada bactroban uk next day delivery us pharmacies online that sell liposafe where to buy eltroxin drugs online buy apo clopidogrel online with no prescription gabapentine spain where can i get doxazosin from what is mometasona made of comprar propecia online argentina 200 mcg thyroxine per day is it illegal to order generic ortho tri cyclen gabapentine canada drug store pyridium modo de usar propranolol generic india american penegra fincar price india what is generic priligy order colospa cheap differin discount voucher online generic revatio what is the dosage of topamax for weight loss cheap alavert no prescription where do i flomax in mexico buy viagra in the united states promethazine australia companies only buy advair diskus 100mg online price increase remeron ordering low dose baclofen purchase lozol in us buy rosuvastatin quick where to buy levothyroxin without a prescription order betapace online generic medicine for diflucan what is prednisone 20 mg used for in dogs liv 52 express canada where can i get saw palmetto ginseng powder shelf life allopurinol buy mexico pill rx health ivenox products boots pravachol london pharmacy grifulvin v mg india amitriptyline pharmacy coupons lansoprazol on line in the uk estrofem generic australia vitamin k foods to avoid while on warfarin website pill identifier price lopid overseas pharmacy no prescription elimite himalaya liv 52 tablets what is advair diskus prescribed for oristal usa sale azithromycin 250mg and drinking alcohol order plavix 75 mg online terramycin uk next day delivery buy canada no prescription for luvox amerimedrx viagra buy pamelor uk where to buy mobic online india order predalone online no presctiption comprar depakote portugal atomoxetine adhd depression brand viagra discount ordering celexa mexico finasteride tablets usp 5 mg what is starlix for imuran no prescription canada lopressor mg no prescription vasotec 10 mg side effects of adalat 30 mg warfarin alternatives new does cialis once a day work uk pharmacies online that sell apo clopidogrel key pred online ordering could you buy diflucan prescription express shipping coreg what does a zyprexa pill look like tamoxifen citrate liquid for sale licensed online pharmacies in usa digoxin pills buy serophene for sale meridia uk online where can i get some benicar buy ipecac syrup online australia benicar low dose birth control mircette delivery cheap aciphex online usa pharmacy augmentin pharmacy order what is doxycycline used for in men buy aceon pills tofranil usa no prescription zebeta 10 mg cost cost of mail disulfiramum avandamet uk next day delivery menosan side effects long term use where to buy tretinoin 0 05 ointment aciphex 20 pill where to buy cheap generic metocarbamol plendil online sales buy cheap valtrex thyrohormone uk buy arthritis in fingers at 40 where to buy revia drugs online buy misoprost tablets what does wigraine half price allopurinol generic suprax cefixime terbinafine hydrochloride cream boots oristal online india revia sold over counter phone in order for sepibest predalone buy online ireland brand name for fluoxetine uk obelit for dogs buy what is tadalis mg used to treat depakote discounted caprysin on line no script sertraline weight gain uk imitrex over the counter drugs can you buy bonnispaz buy cafergot 15mg online pills rx pharmacy exam net index fluticanose without prescrip buying retin a 0 05 using paypal order celexa without prescription buy generic amoxil online differin gel online without prescription generic dutasteride uk where to buy thyrohormone online india proscar vs propecia for hair loss where actos ordering tadalis uk prescription order acticin buy viagra soft without a prescription from canadian pharmacy buying viagra professional using paypal long time side effects colospa l tryptophan to buy in england overnight pharmacy zyprexa delivery fedex order compazine from usa without prescription carvedilolo usa sale where to get himcolin pct best aspirin for daily use no prescription zyloprim sale usa buy valaciclovir without prescription buy hyzaar pills in the mexico differin for sale usa best place to buy retin a 0,025 in mexico anafranil from uk etodolac 500 mg tablet tar atorlip 5 in croatia safe buy ophthacare online avalide in usa citalopram without prescriptions side effects of nexium 40 mg capsules trimox from canada with no prescription order januvia pills demadex uk no prescription silagra tablets on line to buy mobic without prescription pills ordering celebrex uk where can i purchase claravis best place to buy propecia in canada beconase aq without prescrip maxalt bonus pills betnovate prices cvs bayer material science annual report 2010 cipla generic viagra review buy confido 80 mg online viagra cialis power pack purchasing tofranil online uk buy micardis hong kong elimite buy mexico prescription medication online canada vente de lozol au quebec aristocort to buy in the uk without a prescription generic pulmicort for sale on line benicar medication assistance clarithromycin 500 mg side effects what kind of medicine is tetracycline kamagra fast co uk index can order tamsulozin online flomax billig kaufen buy ayurslim without rx what does ginseng look like in the woods cardura noprescrition needed usa online pharmacy topamax order online no prescription ordering online generic zyban where can i get trial erection packs 1 from what does asacol do for ulcerative colitis isoptin on line in the canada leukeran prices at costco online pharmacy noroxin nordette dose pyridium drug in canada pharmacy how to get reglan in australia antara pricing pulmicort prices buy almetec new zealand online buy cipro perth australia what does atarax make you feel like hydroxyzine how to get high off of indomethacin baridium shoppers drug mart metformin and alcoholic beverages generic from avandamet aciclovir birth control online us venlor online sales uk pharmacies online that sell nolvadex alternative for synthroid medicine chlamydia symptoms in men sore throat is levothyroxine sodium the same as levothroid buying lipothin buy mevacor without rx top 10 online cabaser sites viagra side effects wiki zoloft starting dose for anxiety dapoxetine buy no prescription buy cephalexin 500mg online dyazide pharmacy order levitra plus online store what symptoms does zyprexa treat fucidin acne what is amitriptyline used for in cats fincar mexico companies only terramycin us companies only malegra dxt from india toradol from buy ginette 35 pills in the india usa buy rosuvastatin without prescription dove comprare ginseng flomax compression alberta pravachol mg price relafen order in the us discount hytrin mg buy cabaser online australia no prescription erexin v over the counter usa serpina with no rx esperal italiano pravachol online mexico billig ranitidine online kaufen fast feldene deleviery online grocery shopping pak n save where to buy fluconazol ointment where could i buy fincar without prescription buy aprovel without a subscription ordering etabus usa side effects of doxazosin mesylate 4 mg cost of maxalt prescription order generic azurette discount generic viagra canada canada pharmacy viagra generic order pulmicort on line india methotrexate generic india anastrozolo prescription only venlafaxina online diflucan online uk benadryl fast uk getting cytoxan in australia is viagra soft available on line in canada serophene online pharmacy uk biaxin generic price riomont offshore pharmacy generic torsemide sales where to buy anafranil online usa buy keflex online amazon doxycycline billig kaufen almetec drug in fr pharmacy prescription drugs mexico prices can you get cipro without a prescription dramamine reviews less drowsy lansoprazol online with out prescription triamterenum shortage buy misoprost uk levoxyl doses too high can you buy ventolin in asda blue reliever inhalers world select pharmacy review where to buy depakote with amex retino a cream 0,025 online in usa max dose ranitidine pregnancy methocarbamol 750 mg side effects can you buy amoxycillin over the counter penegra sale buy salvent online canada no prescription where to buy mentats buy lozol in usa how long does it take lexapro to start working c ratioph birth control online us canadian drug company mometasona diovan sales 2012 generic order cialis sublingual lowest price over the counter drugs similar to cardizem buy cordarone uk us online pharmacy no prescription mobic buy eldepryl online uk no prescription buy lasilix perth australia buy cialis online in india erythromycin labor and delivery cheapest online order actos how to use fasigyne buy actos medication online buy female viagra paypal accepted how to order carafate quit smoking medication zyban increasing libido in menopausal women what types of cilest are there erection packs 2 results forum espa super active calm and soothe mask retino over the counter usa how long after tamoxifen can i get pregnant yagara pills aloprim canada no prescription pilex tablets himalaya buy fincar 80 mg online what is the best blood pressure medication can you legally buy medication online buy thyrox online pharmacy buy naprosyn discount topamax comprare original orlistat online lipitor generic recall lot numbers discount ethionamide mg non prescription glucophage pharmacy can order amlodipin canada buy differin visa generic from v gel generic probalan uk innopran xl cheap australia pharmacy amoxil cheap cialis sublingual lawsuit bystolic without rx digoxin without prescription miami orlistatum buy uk best prices for viagra what is actos drug lack of disulfiram like reaction with metronidazole and ethanol use proventil coupon online prandin over the counter uk grifulvin v shipping overseas ordering stediril mexico serophene 100mg hydrochlorothiazide australia pharmacy pantoprazole dose upper gi bleed what does cardizem do for the heart flagyl for cats dosage finpecia cipla side effects buy anafranil fast shipping purchase erection packs 3 online get online prescription viagra claravis side effects long term use elocom india order prinivil from canada without prescription singulair perth australia can we trust warafin online buy antara online overnight delivery buy minomycin no prescription venlor without a script ketorolac tromethamine 10 mg generic for toradol cipla pharma indore pilex tablets from buy india pharmacies online that sell haldol cefadroxil canada pharmacy aprovel maximum dosage permethrinum results forum what is retail price of prograf fasigyne online usa nimotop order on web can i make amoxicilina quibron t discount no prescription etodolac pharmacy mail order alavert uk companies only vpxl generic equivalent etodolac suppliers india amoxycillin coupon code carafate uses list of metals from weakest to strongest buy paxil on line brahmi generic for maximum dose decadron im generic haridra uk paypal flunil from uk herbal slimming tablets that work my sildenafil citrate coupons lamisilate birth control online australia disulfiramum prix en pharmacie en france order lipothin uk pharmacy what does paroxetine tablets look like sinequan pharmacy prices list buy bupropion 10 what is the correct dosage of zyprexa diarex spain suprax from china is ampicilina available over the counter viagra plus pfizer purchase torsemide pills grifulvin v on line for sale no script lidocaine gel boots does compazine cause weight gain buy generic propecia online no prescription maximum recommended dose of lexapro como conseguir viagra sin receta argentina suprax lawsuit levaquin back order can i get high off propranolol voveran sr 100 side effects 2010 zovirax pills online in the canada tegretol birth control online canada quibron t birth control online india hoodia mg mexico himcolin medication on line innopran xl noprescrition needed canada online pharmacy is pharmacy rx one a real pharmacy cardura birth control online australia xenical results before and after problems with generic singulair where to buy lady era ointment best brand of sleeping pills best place to buy levlen in uk generic kamagra canada is it illegal to buy prescription medicines online micardis tabletki 80 mg 28 szt can i order lopid online brand cialis overnight shipping cheap aurochem sildenafil reviews cheap canada actos online klipal codeine online bestellen procardia discount no prescription best place to buy cialis generic amaryl uk medications similar to nexium how to use propecia with androgel does propecia work on receding hairlines buy topamax without prescription what is the drug zyban used for generic female viagra overnite shipping buy nitrofurantoin in india online do viagra pills work on women cost of janumet without insurance where do i nizagara in usa simvastatina for men sale in uk ivenox discount no prescription where purchase naprosyn chlamydia nhs poster generic medicine for metformin femcare medication legal sell viagra online uk warfarin dosing guidelines 2012 buy ampicillin with visa buy actoplus cheap pioglitazone metformin buy voltaren mg online phenergan dosage children under 2 buy haridra online no prescription united states should i buy viagra over the counter canada buy lasuna mexican pharmacies luvox over counter albenza over the counter imdur woldwide shipping lynoral reviews for men what types of antivert are there where to buy zebeta with amex generic suhagra united states order propranolol online no prescription with a echeck hydrochlorothiazide 25 mg side effects orlistat sales pharmacy mexico lanoxin vardenafilum canada prescription aleve dosage rxlist elocom order zestril uk no prescription viagra super active birth control online australia viagra barato come posso comprare il cialis buy liposafe tablets canada best ed pill over the counter buy albuterol without a subscription ampicillin uses for dogs marshall mg 100 mercado livre phenergan sent to spain buy lopid pills in the australia bupropion canada online no prescription turkish pharmacy online my lotrisone coupons buy prograf capsules estrace buy online mexico motrin pill canadian viagra sublingual pharmacy order prilosec tablets online can you buy diabecon in ireland discount sarafem otc ciprofloksacin medication xenical comprar online brasil strattera from usa pharmacy generic diarex cost cheap viagra professional usa ciplactin uk buy mirapex online from mexico aciclovir with paypal payment how to get diprolene in australia ampicilina women buy discount etodolac where can i get betoptic pills protonix price comparison retino a cream 0,025 supplier in uk where to purchase sinequan clonidine over counter erythromycin with paypal payment ordering avapro usa buying adalat doxycycline online legally reviews on cialis jelly how to get moduretic in australia indocin uk no prescription l thyroxine from china medicine from canada purchase noroxin on line in canada where to purchase arimidex buying diprosone using paypal how to import dapoxetine ordering simvastatina valacyclovir hcl 500mg dosage quetiapinum tablets buy nimotop paypal cheap amitriptyline hydrochloride prescription can you order alavert loratadine orally disintegrating tablets where to buy medrol dosepak online canada femara us companies only aprovel india no prescription citalopram maximum daily dosage cytotec pills online in the india arava generico italiano side effects of robaxin in horses cheap prednisone 10mg xenical drugs does alli work the canadian pharmacy viagra cialis vs viagra cost lansoprazol india isoniazid pharmacy coupons order vytorin online no prescription with a mastercard buy celexa without a subscription fastest singulair uk delivery zentel australia companies only domperidone tablets ip 10 mg doxazosin mesylate reviews what drug category is metronidazole glyset mg tablet buy cialis professional tablets usa where is crickley hall filmed location order oristal online uk suppliers of maxaman in us canadian drug company retino a cream 0,025 non prescription atrovent list of tesco stores selling pilex arjuna mg buy cheap sildenafil citrate no prescription to buy celexa in uk diprolene online india doxazosin mesylate drug class detrol drug class testo italiano vedova allegra metronidazole mechanism of action protozoa diflucan cheapest rate achat viagra pharmacie en ligne buy cheap tretinoin 0 025 naprosyn sr 1000 side effects keflex without a prescription from mexico best place to buy chloroquine como se toman las pastillas de omifin colospa usa no prescription amoxil 1000 mg side effects oxytrol next day delivery canadian pharmacy online no prescription needed price ventolin inhaler ireland is flovent available as a generic cost of tofranil erexor for sale philippines cefixime on line in the india where do i celebrex in mexico online pharmacy buy tetracycline approved generic where can i buy serevent tablets robaxin 1000 mg side effects cheapest way get finasteride generic erythromycin ophthalmic ointment atomoxetin lowest price online raloxifeno refills can you buy levothroid over the counter mentat online in us order ventolin side effects of alesse 28 buy trandate usa how to get minocycline on line serevent buy online ireland what types of advair diskus are there keppra without prescrip generic paxil prices cheapest femara paypal the chepest omnicef can u buy accutane over the counter frusemide usa cvs prices purchase atarax on line in mexico safe tadalis sx no precription prescription refill without doctor visit what conditions does aspirin treat protonix 20 mg vs 40 mg how to order seroquel online lotrisone online meds best pharmacy prices for cialis we found love lyrics wiki ampicilina express canada cephalexin generic reviews zantac generic mexico mexico pharmacies online that sell valaciclovir generic from evista where to buy clavamox online usa retin a 0,05 fast usa metformin uk sale malegra fxt online legally order maxaman generic paxil paypal buy sildenafil citrate online overnight delivery voltaren drug in fr pharmacy how to take diprosone mg how to buy procardia donde comprar medrol shuddha guggulu birth control online india best place to buy v gel in uk buy kamagra online india ajanta trileptal to buy in australia acai berry cost in india triamterenum express canada lisinopril no prescription zestril generic seroquel xr 300 mg tablets viagra soft coupon code buy aygestin tablets hoboken vintage guitars glucofage usa cvs prices acheter pas cher liv list of tesco stores selling tadalis average cost of xeloda buy prandin online from australia retin a drugstore com pricing is confido available in india purchase diprosone in india benfotiamine usa cvs prices safe to buy generic tamoxifen from canada order ralista canada bactrim 100ml cena over the counter medicine that acts as oxybutyninum roaccutane online pay paypal buy lexapro low cheap price no periods after depo provera president janssen cilag france lasix precio mexico acquisto artane sicuro online buying premarin from canada no prescription fastest aripiprazola uk delivery asacol ec 400 mg tablets hong kong buy online generic claritin yasmin low dose pill codeine promethazine australia genuine zetia 100mg kebaikan dan keburukan pil perancang mercilon over the counter medicine isotretin comprar dostinex online order novo digoxin tablets can i buy effexor xr in canada liquid tamoxifen buy over the counter drugs similar to voltaren comprar viagra internet foro generic stediril switzerland motilium prices at costco order innopran without rx tretinoin pharmacy prices list is there a generic protonix meclizine uk no prescription cost clomiphene australia buy arimidex online no prescription united states purchasing celexa online uk brand cafergot for sale generic retino a cream 0,05 uk paypal online finpecia overnight delivery buy online mircette generic price increase kamagra oral jelly online pregnancy test ovulation calculator valtrex canada companies only brand amoxil fast canada buy toprol xl new zealand online cvs online pharmacy store reviews what drug category is colchicine low cost flovent my nitrofurantoin coupons discount alavert otc where to lincocin ashwagandha price isoptin online forum how long to use elocon can we trust vpxl online klipal codeine where can i buy albendazole on line in the uk arimidex free shipping does accutane cause long term depression order isoptin from uk without prescription can nitrofurantoin capsules be opened and sprinkled on food erection packs 1 to buy best site for allopurinol